Disclosing Confidential Information about Debtor's Property after Discharge in Bankruptcy
Editor's Note: This is a final opinion of the State Bar. The State Bar Council voted to substitute this opinion for the opinion previously adopted by the council on January 15, 1999, as 98 Formal Ethics Opinion 20 because the prior opinion contained some inaccuracies relative to the practice of bankruptcy law. The ethical advice in the original opinion and in the substitute opinion is essentially the same. For this reason, the council chose not to publish the substitute opinion as a proposed opinion.
Opinion rules that, subject to a statute prohibiting the withholding of the information, a lawyer's duty to disclose confidential client information to a bankruptcy court ends when the case is closed although the debtor's duty to report new property continues for 180 days after the date of filing the petition.
Attorney A represented Client in a Chapter 7 Bankruptcy proceeding. The discharge has been entered and the case closed. Subsequently, Attorney A learned from Attorney B, Client's attorney in a domestic matter, that Client recently inherited a substantial sum of money. According to 11 U.S.C. § 541, property of the bankruptcy estate includes any property that the debtor acquires or becomes entitled to within 180 days of the date of filing the petition. 11 U.S.C. § 521 and Bankruptcy Rule 1007(h) require a debtor to report income or assets acquired through bequest, devise, or inheritance within the 180 days. Client's inheritance would be considered property of the estate, thus, triggering the reporting requirement. Client has not yet reported this income and the applicable time period has not lapsed. Although the case is closed, the trustee has one year to reopen the case and distribute assets. Attorney A has informed Client he has a duty to report his inheritance.
Is the information received from Attorney B confidential information under Rule 1.6?
Yes. Rule 1.6 defines confidential information as "information gained in the professional relationship that the client has requested be held inviolate or the disclosure of which would be embarrassing or would be likely to be detrimental to the client." Although this definition may appear on its face to limit confidential information to information either received from the client or received during the course of the representation, the comment to the rule clarifies that "[t]he confidentiality rule applies not merely to matters communicated in confidence by the client but also to all information relating to the representation, whatever its source." Rule 1.6, cmt. 5. In this case, the information, although received from another attorney, relates to Attorney A's representation of Client and was acquired at a time when Attorney A had undertaken to keep Client informed of his responsibilities regarding bankruptcy estate property.
If Client refuses to report his inheritance, does Rule 3.3(a) require that Attorney A reveal this information to the court or bankruptcy administrator so that the case may be reopened?
No. Rule 3.3(a) imposes a duty of candor on an attorney appearing before a tribunal in a court of law or adjudicative proceeding. The rule, however, places a time limitation on an attorney's duty to disclose. Once a proceeding has concluded, Rule 3.3(a) ceases to govern attorney conduct; that is, the duty to disclose arises only during the proceedings and not thereafter. Rule 3.3(b). See Annotated Model Rules of Professional Conduct Rule 3.3 cmt. (3rd ed. 1996); Charles W. Wolfram, Modern Legal Ethics § 12.5.3, at 660 (1986). Here, the bankruptcy proceeding was closed. Notwithstanding a trustee's ability to reopen the case, in the Chapter 7 context, there currently is no case or proceeding triggering a duty to disclose under Rule 3.3.
May Attorney A reveal information about Client's inheritance under Rule 1.6(d)?
Ordinarily, an attorney may not disclose confidential information of a client. Rule 1.6(c). Rule 1.6(d)(3) of the Revised Rules of Professional Conduct permits, but does not require, Attorney A to reveal the information to the appropriate authority when required by law.
A Chapter 7 estate is created upon the filing of the case and terminates upon closure of the case. Under a federal criminal statute relating to bankruptcy, 18 U.S.C. § 152, a person who
knowingly and fraudulently conceals from a custodian, trustee, marshal, or other officer of the court charged with control or custody of property, or, in connection with a case under title 11, from creditors or the United States Trustee, any property belonging to the estate of a debtor . . . shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both. [emphasis added]
Because property of the estate includes property acquired by the debtor within 180 days of commencement of the case, Attorney A may determine that, under 18 U.S.C. § 152, he has a legal duty to reveal information regarding the Client's estate, and that there may be criminal consequences for his failure to do so. Other federal statutes including Title 11, Title 18, the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure (e.g. Rules 1007(h) and 1008), or local rules of Court should be consulted in this regard. This opinion is limited to the facts stated, in a Chapter 7 case, and may not apply in other bankruptcy contexts.
A lawyer should comply with a statute compelling disclosure of confidential information unless disclosure will substantially damage the interests of the client and there is a compelling legal interest of the client that may entitle the lawyer not to reveal the information. See RPC 175 ("a lawyer may be unwilling to comply with the child abuse reporting statute because he or she believes that compliance would deprive a client charged with a crime of the constitutional right to effective assistance of counsel"). Of course, before disclosing any confidential information to the authorities, Attorney A should give Client the opportunity to comply with the disclosure requirement by informing Client of his ongoing duty to amend his schedules to reflect the inheritance, that he is subject to the penalties of perjury if he does not do so, and that Attorney A may reveal the information to the authorities if Client fails to do so.