Lawyer's Obligation to Record or to Disburse Closing Funds
Editor's note: This opinion expands upon 99 Formal Ethics Opinion 9. To the extent that this opinion differs from 99 FEO 9, that opinion is overruled.
Opinion rules that a closing lawyer shall not record and disburse when a seller has delivered the deed to the lawyer but the buyer instructs the lawyer to take no further action to close the transaction.
Attorney represented Small Corporation on the purchase of a residential lot from Development Company. After the closing conference, Attorney deposited the check for the purchase price in his trust account and recorded the deed at the register of deeds. When he returned from the courthouse, he received a telephone call from an official with Small Corporation who stated that Small Corporation did not want to purchase the lot anymore because company officials had just learned that a house with a basement could not be built on the lot. The corporate official instructed Attorney not to disburse any of the closing funds although the deed was already recorded and title vested in Small Corporation. Development Company, the seller, demanded the sale proceed. What should Attorney do?
Normally, a client's decision not to proceed with a transaction must be honored by the lawyer and, if necessary, the lawyer must restore the status quo ante by returning documents, property, or funds to the appropriate parties to the transaction. Comment  to Rule 1.2 of the Rules of Professional Conduct states, "[t]he client has ultimate authority to determine the purposes to be served by legal representation within the limits imposed by law and the lawyer's professional obligations." However, a closing lawyer must also comply with the conditions placed upon the delivery of the deed by the seller absent fraud. If the seller delivered the executed deed to the lawyer upon the condition that the deed would only be recorded if the purchase price was paid, the lawyer has fiduciary responsibilities to the seller even if the seller is not the lawyer's client. See, e.g., RPC 44 (conditional delivery of loan proceeds). Because title has passed to the buyer, the lawyer must satisfy the conditions of the transfer of the property by disbursing the sale proceeds. The lawyer must notify the buyer and the buyer can then take appropriate legal action to seek to have the sale rescinded. This opinion is applicable to closings on property used or developed for residential purposes.
May Attorney represent Small Corporation in the subsequent action for rescission?
No. Rule 3.7(a) prohibits a lawyer from serving as a witness and an advocate in a trial proceeding. Moreover, Attorney's testimony may be detrimental to the interests of Small Corporation. If so, Attorney is also be barred from the representation because of the conflict of interest. Rule 3.7(b).
Would the answer to Inquiry #1 be different if the buyer had instructed the lawyer not to disburse the sales proceeds after the closing conference, but before the deed was recorded?
Yes. Unless the real estate contract provides otherwise, or it is otherwise agreed between the parties, closing is presumed to be complete at the date and time of recording. If closing is not complete, upon receiving the buyer's instruction not to close, the lawyer should return the funds to lender and buyer, return the deed to seller, and retain the other closing documents in his file. The lawyer should hold any escrowed funds he received representing the earnest money deposit made at the time of the offer to purchase. If the earnest money was not initially deposited with the lawyer at the time of the offer to purchase, the lawyer shall have the right to return the deposit to the escrow account of the person, firm, or company that initially received the deposit.
Assume that Attorney represents Development Company, the seller of the property. After the closing conference, but prior to recording the deed, Attorney received a telephone call from the seller asking the lawyer not to record the deed. What should attorney do?
Opinion #4See Opinion # 3.
THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE BAR
217 E. Edenton Street • PO Box 25908 • Raleigh, NC 27611-5908 • 919.828.4620
Copyrightę North Carolina State Bar. All rights reserved.